Researchers in Japan, examining medical records of women with untreated Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), attempted to quantify the effect of PMDD in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). They found that untreated PMDD, over the course of a woman’s lifetime, leads to a loss of approximately 3 QALYs.Yamada, Kazuo and Eiichiro Kamagata. (2017). “Reduction of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in Patients with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD).” Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care and Rehabilitation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28674766
A multinational, cross-sectional survey of WASH in 2270 schools in six Sub-Saharan African countries found that fewer than 20 percent of schools in each country had at least four of the recommended menstrual hygiene management services – separate-sex facilities, clean water supply, presence of a door, lock on the door, and a waste disposal bin. Only 7 percent of schools met the recommended girl-to-latrine ratio (compared to 36 percent for the recommended boy-to-latrine ratio), 9 percent had a water supply available for washing, 22 percent had a door, and 31 percent had a waste disposal bin of some sort available for girls. (The study drew its indicators from multiple existing international guidelines, including World Health Organization guidelines for schools in low-cost settings.
Kakani, C. R., & Bhatt, J. K. (2017). Study of adaptability and efficacy of menstrual cup in managing menstrual health and hygiene. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 6(7), 3045–3053.
A study examining acceptability and performance of menstrual cups among 150 women of reproductive age in India found that insertion was easy for 80 percent of women, removal was easy for 90 percent of women, and that 90 percent of women preferred the menstrual cup over their previous method of menstrual hygiene management. Adverse events – dryness, allergy, rash, or infection – were reported in 7.3 percent of women (11 out of 150) over the course of three menstrual cycles.
PMA 2020, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (2017). Menstrual Hygiene Management Kenya, 2016.
The PMA2020 released a report on the state of menstrual hygiene management in Kenya in 2016, which found that while 87 percent of Kenyan women report using sanitary pads as their main MHM material, and over 80 percent of women in both rural and urban areas report having a clean, safe, and private MHM facility, only 46 percent of Kenyan women report having everything they need to manage their menstruation.
Sanctis, V. D., Soliman, A. T., Elsedfy, H., Soliman, N. A., Soliman, R., & Kholy, M. E. (2017). Dysmenorrhea in adolescents and young adults: a review in different country. Acta Bio Medica Atenei Parmensis, 87(3), 233 246.
A review article examining dysmenorrhea in adolescents across multiple countries found that while dysmenorrhea diagnoses and reported severity of symptoms varied widely across countries, many girls did not receive professional medical care or treatment for their symptoms, and relied on primarily on self-medication, their mothers, and their peers to cope with their symptoms.
Morgan, C., Bowling, M., Bartram, J., & Lyn Kayser, G. (2017). Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: Status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.03.015